The Importance of Mars for Humanity
We will look for answers to these questions in this article.
On Monday, NASA announced perhaps the most important scientific discovery to date.
He explained that he found serious evidence that there was liquid on Mars. This invention, which is described as diluted salt and manifests itself in seasonal currents, excited humanity in the search for extraterrestrial life.
A DAY ON MARS ONLY 40 MINUTES LONGER THAN THE WORLD
Mars, which is in 4th place according to its distance from the Sun and is the second smallest planet in the solar system after Mercury, can be considered as the cousin of Earth.
- A Mars day is only slightly longer than an Earth day. An Earth day is about 24 hours, while a Mars day is about 24 hours 40 minutes. In other words, if a person lands on Mars one day, it seems that he will have no difficulty in adapting to the day and night.
- Another similarity between Earth and Mars is seasonal changes. As we know, the reason for the occurrence of the seasons is the changes that occur throughout the year in the angle of sunlight coming to Earth.
This is because the Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees in its orbit around the Sun. However, this angle of inclination for Mars is 25.2 degrees.
- One Martian year (686 Earth days) equals approximately 2 Earth years. This means that a Martian season lasts about 2 times longer than an Earth season.
For these reasons, Mars, almost half the size of the Earth, can be seen as Earth’s tiny cousin.
MARS IS LIKE ANTARCTICA
Mars is a deadly planet. There are two main reasons for this.
- The temperature on Mars is very low and can drop to -87 degrees Celsius. It’s like Antarctica! The temperature on Mars rarely rises above 0.
- Mars does not have an atmosphere similar to that on Earth. It is thinner than 1% of the Earth’s atmosphere. Almost 95% of the Martian atmosphere is made up of carbon dioxide! In other words, it is impossible to walk around the surface of Mars without special clothes.
Mars, named after the Roman god of war, is called the ‘red planet’. This is because the iron oxide on its surface (ie the iron oxidation event) gives the planet a reddish color like blood.
VISIT MARS 5 YEARS BEFORE THE FOOT TO THE MOON
Dozens of spacecraft have been sent to Mars by Russia, the USA, Europe, and India. Mars was first visited by a spacecraft in 1964.
That is, 5 years before the Moon landing! This NASA vehicle named Marine 4 was the first spacecraft to make the closest pass to Mars. Later, many spacecraft were sent, designed to orbit around Mars. While many attempts were unsuccessful, some of them have been traveling around Mars for a long time, obtaining detailed views of the planet.
Landing on the surface of Mars is a more complicated task that requires greater effort.
FROM VIKING TO MARS
The first spacecraft to accomplish this was NASA’s Viking 1 spacecraft. Viking 1 was sent to Mars in 1975 and landed successfully. More difficult than landing a spacecraft on a planet millions of kilometers away is to be able to move that spacecraft smoothly after landing it on the planet. NASA’s Pathfinder spacecraft successfully landed on the planet in 1997, and the tiny robotic vehicle Sojourner (Guest), which has a 10-kilo mobility wheel, conducted 3 months of research on the planet. Later, a better robotic vehicle, Spirit (Human Spirit) landed on Mars in 2004 and worked for 6 years without any problems. The two most recently sent spacecraft that are still in operation are perhaps the most important in terms of the information they have provided. The first of these is the Opportunity Spirit spacecraft twin and landed on Mars 3 weeks after Spirit. Another vehicle that landed on the planet in 2012 and is still operational is the Curiosity spacecraft. These two vehicles carry scientific laboratories specially built to examine soil and rock samples.
PLANNED TO SEND A HUMAN SPACE VEHICLE TO MARS
NASA is continuing a Mars research program called ‘Seek Signs of Life – Search for Signs of Life’ to explore past and present life possibilities on Mars. For this purpose, other spacecraft will be sent to Mars shortly. For example, NASA plans to send a $ 425 million vehicle called InSight in 2016 to seismically examine deeper parts of the Martian surface.
The robotic vehicle named Mars 2020 Rover will be sent to Mars in 2020 and its primary purpose will be a search for life on Mars. Perhaps the most exciting project about Mars is NASA’s Orion project. This project is a manned spacecraft project currently under development by NASA to take 4 astronauts farther into our solar system. NASA is still working on this project, which it plans to make a manned flight to Mars by 2050, and is constantly doing tests.