What is an Enzyme? Detailed Information on Enzymes

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Enzymes; They are biological molecules with protein structure that increase the speed of chemical reactions in the cell. They play an important role in the realization of important vital activities such as metabolism and digestion in our bodies.

Some enzymes serve to break up large molecules into smaller pieces, while others take on the task of combining two molecules. Enzymes are highly selective. Therefore, each enzyme has a special reaction that it can accelerate. The molecules processed by enzymes are called “substrates”. The parts where these substrates bind and react on the enzyme are called “active sites”. Two different theories are explaining the reactions of enzymes and substrates.

The first one; The key-lock relationship is formed according to the substrate to ensure perfect attachment to the enzyme’s active sites.

Latter; The induced fit pattern, active site, and substrate do not match perfectly. On the contrary, both sides change their shapes, forming a common structure and thus holding on.

Regardless of the theory, reactions accelerate tremendously after holding onto. Enzymes are separated from the products produced at the end of this process to accelerate further reactions. For example; The amylase enzyme in the salivary glands attaches to starch and accelerates hydrolysis (breaking down compounds that react with water), resulting in maltose or malt sugar.